The Project

Biography of an Uncharted People

“Digital Humanities” operates at the intersection of the humanities and computing. Scholars using the methods of the Digital Humanities can make use of a variety of tools, from algorithms that help with textual analysis, to image recognition, or Big Data techniques. They can digitize and transcribe large databases and analyze individuals’ characteristics and behavior. In the absence of other information of South Africans, particularly black citizens, who were often excluded from censuses and reports and underrepresented in other types of archival records such as personal collections of letters, individual-level records are a treasure trove of information about the economic, social, demographic, health, labor, genealogical and migration histories of the Cape Colony and South Africa.

The good news is that such individual-level historical records in digital format are rapidly becoming more available. The life histories of individuals can now be reconstructed at a fraction of the research cost of manual archival research. This is important, because even though digitised records are available online, they are mostly inaccessible to most South Africans. In fact, the only systematized series of birth, marriage and death records available at present represents only the white population. By making historical information easily accessible, the Biography of an Uncharted People project will thus give dignity to black, colored and Indian South Africans, enabling them to bring to light histories of families that were overlooked in the past.

Besides transcribing and disseminating these large, previously unexplored datasets of microdata, the project will also begin to analyze the information systematically in order to contribute to debates in South African history.

In addition to the research topics to be undertaken by masters and honors students, five flagship projects for PhD students have been identified. These sources and the methods of the Digital Humanities will also be introduced into undergraduate and graduate teaching curricula. This will equip a new generation of historians to engage critically with primary sources and large amounts of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

We acknowledge the tension that can exist between quantification of data on the one hand and the traditional analytical tools of the humanities on the other. Yet this project, which will include compelling visualizations of the data to communicate with both a scholarly and a lay audience, draws heavily on humanistic methods and goals. Easily accessible charts and videos of historical data will encourage historians and the general public to reflect on South Africa’s history and the way previously hidden archival data can reveal more about that history.

Because the apartheid system handicapped South Africa by imposing on it a higher education system designed to maintain social and economic inequalities of race, class, gender, region and institution, this project is also an attempt to narrow the methodological divergence that have occurred in the discipline. We see historical privilege or disadvantage reflected in students’ varying ability to work with large sets of quantitative and qualitative historical evidence using technological tools. This project aims to remove the handicaps and produce young scholars skilled in the Digital Humanities and able to teach the next generation.

Annual LEAP Lecture and conference

Women and Work in History and Economics

The “Women and Work in History and Economics” conference was an interdisciplinary meeting of historians and economists focussed on the theme of women and work in the study of the past. It took place online on the 7th of October 2020. Its purpose was to explore the need for, and challenges associated with this topic. While the subject is an undeniably important aspect of historical research, its study has been marked by different and sometimes conflicting approaches. This conference set out to: affirm the value of researching women and work, provide an opportunity to explore the potential of different approaches and investigate the value that these approaches could add to each other.

The conference ended with a roundtable which acted as the LEAP Lecture for 2020. The participants are listed below:
Alice Evans (King’s College London)
Emmanuel Akyeampong (Harvard University)
Jane Humphries (LSE, Oxford University)
Joyce Burnette (Wabash College)
Ushehwedu Kufakurinani (University of Zimbabwe)

The institution of marriage and other aspects of human relationships in twentieth century Cape Town is at the core of this research project. We seek to understand women’s position in society, their movements into and within the city, their navigation of romantic relationships and their work. A vast array of sources and methodologies positions us to bring unexplored aspects of women’s history to the fore.

THE TEAM:
Amy Rommelspacher uses a variety of sources including survey data and marriage records to investigate marriage patterns, female labour force participation and women’s wellbeing in the city.
Nobungcwele Mbem focus on African migration to Cape Town at the beginning of the twentieth century. She is using marriage records and survey data to trace the movements of people from the Eastern Cape.
Brittany Chalmers uses newspaper articles to understand perceptions about racial reclassification in twentieth-century Cape Town.
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS:
Emmanuel Akyeampong (Harvard University), Michiel de Haas (Wageningen University), Wayne Dooling (SOAS), Kris Inwood (Guelph University), Jan Kok (Nijmegen University), Auke Rijpma (Utrecht University) and Robert Ross (Leiden University).
GRADUATES:
Laura Richardson (Masters): Between Duty and Desire: Pre-Nuptial Pregnancy and Unmarried Motherhood in Anglican Cape Town during the first half of the Twentieth Century.
PUBLISHED RESEARCH:
Fourie, Johan, and Kris, Inwood. Interracial marriages in twentieth-century Cape Town: evidence from Anglican marriage records. The History of the Family 24, no. 3 (2019): 629-652.
Rommelspacher, Amy. and Fourie, Johan. The Anglican marriage records of Cape Town: 1865-1960. New Contree. Forthcoming.

This project examines the development of political participation and exclusion during a key period of political and economic transition in the British Cape Colony (1854-1909). A team of historians and economists use an interdisciplinary approach to study the effect of developing relatively more democratic institutions on governance, the politics of exclusion, and the consequences of disenfranchisement. We draw on a number of government publications, such as Voters’ Rolls, the Blue Books of the Cape Colony, and parliamentary records.

THE TEAM:
Kara Dimitruk studies the political economy of revising labor regulations and infrastructure building using petitions to the Cape Parliament.
Farai Nyika uses the Cape Colony voters’ rolls to measure the economic impact of disenfranchisement on Africans in the late nineteenth century Transkei territories.
Anneke de Ruyter uses newly transcribed data from the Cape Colony Blue Books between 1839-1879 to investigate the change in colonial governance after the implementation of Representative Governance in 1854.
Lauren Coetzee
investigates electoral outcomes and voter registration in the post-war Cape Colony.
Rafeeq James investigates Coloured voter disenfranchisement.
GRADUATES:
Beaurel Visser (Masters): Enfranchised Africans and disfranchising legislations: An analysis of the educated landowners of Queenstown as an African middle class, c.1872-1909.
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS:
Dan de Kadt (UC Merced), Laura Montenegro Helfer (University of Chicago), James Robinson (University of Chicago), Jonathan Schoots (University of Chicago), and Joachim Wehner (London School of Economics).
PUBLISHED RESEARCH:
Nyika, F. and Fourie, J. 2020. Black Disenfranchisement in the Cape Colony, c.1887–1909: Challenging the Numbers. Journal of Southern African Studies. In press.

Emancipation of the enslaved in the Cape Colony brought about a transformation in society that some historians liken in impact to the Mineral Revolution, or the ending of Apartheid. This project seeks to understand that transformation from slavery to freedom for the enslaved themselves as well as for the economy of the colony more generally. In this way it contributes both to research on the life trajectories of the former slaves and apprentices and to the growing, international fields of financial history, and legacies of slavery.

THE TEAM:
Kate Ekama’s research focusses on the financial underpinnings of Cape slavery in the period of the institution’s demise. She uses account books, mortgage records and contemporary newspaper reports to better understand how compensated emancipation worked in the Cape Colony and its connection to the formalisation of financial institutions.
Lisa Martin uses a large dataset compiled from micro-level records of compensation to study geographical and social mobility of the formerly enslaved after emancipation. For her PhD project, she applies econometric techniques and machine learning processes to historical data to illuminate life trajectories and choices of these individuals.
Karl Bergemann works on runaway apprentices during the period of emancipation, 1834 to 1838.
Christiaan Burger
investigates the origins of the opgaafrolle, the eighteenth and nineteenth-century tax annual tax censuses.
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS:
Bronwen Everill (Cambridge University), Robert Ross (Leiden University), Leonard Wantchekon (Princeton University), Laura Mitchell (UC Irvine).
DATA SOURCES:
PUBLISHED RESEARCH:
Ekama, Kate, Fourie, Johan, Heese, Hans and Martin, Lisa. When Cape Slavery Ended: Introducing a New Slave Emancipation Dataset. Explorations in Economic History. Forthcoming.
Bijsterbosch, David, and Johan Fourie. Coffee, Slavery and a Tax Loophole: Explaining the Cape Colony’s Trading Boom, 1834–1841. South African Historical Journal 72, no. 1 (2020): 125-147.

The Frontiers of Finance is a research project that studies the financial and business history of the British Cape Colony. We seek to study how the spread of the joint stock company with its multiple shareholders, limited liability and professional managers ushered in a period of rapid growth, globalisation and innovation. By digitising, transcribing and curating the largest joint-stock archive in Africa, this project investigates the emergence of early capitalism at the Cape Colony and Southern Africa from 1862 onwards. By bringing together economists, historians, sociologists, genealogists and geographers, the project will systematically explore the links between early capitalism, businesses and the broader context of economic change in Southern Africa.

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THE TEAM:
Edward Kerby uses the Joint Stock records to explore the depth and breadth of modern capitalism across the Cape Colony and Southern Africa in the late twentieth century.
Munashe Chideya
considers how companies took on the role of the state in areas with poor institutions.
Kereeditse Tsokodibane investigates the black-owned limited liability companies in the late nineteenth-century Cape Colony.
GRADUATES:
Lloyd Maphosa (PhD): A historical analysis of joint stock companies in the Cape Colony between 1892 and 1902.
PUBLISHED RESEARCH:
Maphosa, Lloyd, Ehlers, Anton, Fourie, Johan and Edward Kerby. People’s capitalism? Investors in the private capital market at the Cape, 1892–1902. Economic History of Developing Regions. Forthcoming.
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS:

Oskar Broberg (Gothenburg University)

Death and patient records provide glimpses of the lived experiences of people that are often excluded from the archives. This project uses a variety of individual-level sources and censuses to better understand the health and living standards of South Africans in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

THE TEAM:

Lesego Mabapa uses patient records of the Grahamstown Lunatic Asylum to write about the lived experiences of black South Africans during the late nineteenth century.
Emery Kalema investigates the history of the Grahamstown Lunatic Asylum and mental health in the nineteenth-century Cape Colony.
Jonathan Jayes uses death notices to study the impact of the 1918 Spanish flu on health inequality in the Cape province.
Kelsey Lemon studies the medical inspections of schools in the Cape Province in the early twentieth century.

PUBLISHED RESEARCH:
Fourie, Johan, and Jonathan Jayes. Health inequality and the 1918 influenza in South Africa. World Development 141 (2021): Forthcoming.
INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS:

Dmitri van den Bersselaar (Leipzig University)

Partners

Our Team

A global network of scholars:

Principal investigator and project coordinator:

Prof. Johan Fourie (Project coordinator)

Johan Fourie is associate professor in the Department of Economics and Department of History at Stellenbosch University and project coordinator of the Biography of an Uncharted People project in the Department of History at Stellenbosch University. Fourie completed his PhD in the Department of History and Art History at the University of Utrecht, Netherlands in 2012 under the supervision of economic historian Jan Luiten van Zanden, on the wealth of the eighteenth-century Dutch Cape Colony. In 2015, he was awarded the “Best Dissertation” prize in the category “Early Modern History” at the World Economic History Congress in Kyoto, Japan. He is co-editor of Economic History of Developing Regions, co-founder of the African Economic History Network and coordinator of the Laboratory for the Economics of Africa’s Past (LEAP). He has published in leading local and international journals, including the Economic History Review, South African Historical Journal, Journal of African History, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Journal of Southern African Studies and European Review of Economic History.

Kate Ekama
(Postdoc)
Kara Dimitruk
(Postdoc)
Amy Rommelspacher
(PhD)
Nobungcwele Mbem
(PhD)

Karl Bergemann
(PhD)

Munashe Chideya
(PhD)

Lesego Mabapa

(Masters)

Brittany Chalmers

(Masters)

Kelsey Lemon

(Masters)

Kudzai Chidamwoyo

(Masters)

Paige Smith

(Masters)

Lauren Coetzee
(Masters)

Kereeditse Tsokodibane

(Masters)

Katherine Steinke
(Masters)

Christiaan Burger

(Honours)

Rafeeq Daniels

(Honours)

Sasha Mcghee

(Honours)

Cherise Horsley

(Honours)

Former students

Setshaba Aaron

Graduated in 2018

Robyn Dumas

Graduated in 2018

Rabia Abba Omar

Graduated in 2018

Francisco Marco Gracia

Former postdoc (2018-2019)

Cailin McRae

Graduated in 2020

Ilse Brookes

Graduated in 2019

Aluwani Ramarumo

Graduated in 2019

Young-ook Jang

Former postdoc (2019-2020)

Beaurel Visser
Graduated 2021
Laura Richardson
Graduated 2020

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